PETROLEUM: Petroleum (from Greek: ??????????, "rock oil") is a heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds, primarily hydrocarbons insoluble in water. Also known as crude oil or crude oil. Fossil is the result of the transformation of organic matter from algae and zooplankton, deposited funds in large quantities in anoxic zones of lakes or seas of the geological past, were later buried under heavy layers of sediment. Chemical transformation (natural cracking) due to heat and pressure during diagenesis occurs in successive stages from bitumen to increasingly lighter hydrocarbons (liquid and gaseous).
These products amounted to the surface, its lower density, due to the porosity of sedimentary rocks. When circumstances occur that prevent the rise geological (oil traps as impermeable rocks, anticlinal structures, margins diapiric salt, etc..) Are formed then the oilfields.
Under normal conditions it is a bituminous liquid that may be present wide variation in various parameters such as viscosity and color (from yellowish and slightly viscous liquids such as gasoline to black so that only viscous flow), density (from 0.75 g / ml and 0, 95 g / ml), heat capacity, etc.. These variations are due to different concentrations of the hydrocarbons that make up the mixture.
It is a non-renewable natural resource and is also currently the main source of energy in developed countries. The liquid oil can occur associated with layers of natural gas in fields that have been buried for millions of years covered by the upper layers of the earth's crust.
RESERVATIONS: If extraction continues at the same pace as in 2002 unless new reserves are found, the world's reserves would last approximately 42 years. It is estimated that some are 143,000 Mt.
There are between 6.8 and 7.2 barrels of oil per ton, depending on the density of oil. Therefore, the oil reserves are estimated between 0.97 and 1.003 billion barrels of petr�leo.
But the limit of the reserves could be even closer if one takes into account forecast models with an increasing consumption as has been standard throughout the last century. The new discoveries of oil fields have shrunk drastically in recent decades by unsustainable long high current levels of extraction, not including future demand for Asian consumers. Moreover, most major world reserves have been declining, and only those in the Middle East maintain sustained growth. It is expected that even these sites come in decline by 2010, resulting in the entire world production inevitably decline, leading to greater energy crisis that has suffered the industrialized world. According to the Hubbert peak theory, updated with recent data by the Association for the Study of Peak Oil, the start of that decline should begin in 2007.
PRINCIPAL PRODUCING COUNTRIES:
- RUSSIAN EXPORT BLENDS CRUDE OIL (R.E.B.C.O)
- BLCO / PMS
- DIESEL GAS D2 OIL GOST 305-82 / D6
- MAZUT 100 GOST -10585-75
- MAZUT 100 GOST -10585-99
- AVIATION KEROSENE COLONIAL GRADE 54 JET FUEL
- LPG / LNG